Australian Jobs Report

Australian Jobs Report Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 13:56

Australian Jobs Report

Australian Jobs Report Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/24/2020 - 07:59

Welcome to the 2020 edition of Australian Jobs. This publication provides an overview of trends in the Australian labour market to support job seekers and employment service providers, career advisers, those considering future training and work and people interested in labour market issues.

How to use Australian Jobs

Australians Jobs 2020 is designed to step you through all aspects of the labour market. The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impact on the labour market and there is now more competition for jobs. It is more important than ever to understand what employers are looking for and to understand the labour market that you are moving into.

The first three sections are an overview of Australia’s diverse labour market, providing analysis and outlining opportunities across industries, occupations and locations.

The second half of the publication provides a step-by-step process on how to find a job. From where vacancies are located, to what employers are looking for, demonstrating how formal education can help you achieve career goals and outlining what government programs are available to assist you.

It is important to remember that the labour market can change quickly. It isn’t easy to forecast future labour market conditions and it isn’t recommended to base employment and training decisions solely on predicted shortages. It is far better to train in an area in which you have an interest and aptitude than choosing a career solely based on expectations about future conditions.

While occupations can be in high demand, job seekers can still face significant competition for positions, and employers sometimes have difficulty recruiting for occupations which are not growing very much or are even in decline.

More detailed information is available

The analysis in this publication gives an overview of some of the factors to consider in understanding employment conditions and the changes which are occurring in the labour market.

Links to websites that offer additional information, include:

There is a range of Government assistance available to help you get workplace experience, gain skills through education and training, and find the right job. More information about this assistance is in the Government Programs section and on the Department of Education, Skills and Employment’s website at dese.gov.au.

Please send all inquiries about this publication to australianjobs@skillscommission.gov.au

The contents of Australian Jobs 2020 are based on information available at the time of publication. Over time, the reliability of the data and analysis may diminish. The Commonwealth, its officers, employees and agents do not accept responsibility for any inaccuracies contained in the report or for any negligence in the compilation of the report and disclaim liability for any loss suffered by any person arising from the use of this report. Labour market information must be used cautiously as employment prospects can change over time and vary by region. It is important in making and assessing career choices to consider all factors, including interest and aptitudes, remuneration and expectations, and the requirements of occupations.

Where we are now

Where we are now Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:30

A time of major change

COVID-19 has radically affected Australia’s labour market.

With the onset of COVID-19 in March 2020 (when Australia recorded its 100th case and just prior to the shutdown of non-essential services and trading restrictions), there was an unprecedented fall in employment, record numbers of people left the job market and, for those who remained looking for work, vacancies fell to their lowest level in more than a decade.

Thousands of jobs were lost and the lives of many Australians altered greatly. Nonetheless, Australia is performing better than most other nations in terms of its economic resilience.

Most labour market indicators (such as employment and the unemployment rate) are now improving since the low in May 2020, buoyed by the decline in coronavirus cases and the subsequent easing of restrictions. Encouragingly, employment for women and youth, who were initially affected the most, is rebounding quite strongly, although for both their employment remains below pre-COVID levels.

To help with the recovery process, the NSC has developed a range of information, resources and tools to support job seekers during this unprecedented time (one of which you are currently reading!). Another has been to identify occupations that have remained resilient despite the broader impact of COVID-19.

What is a resilient occupation?

The NSC considers an occupation to be resilient if it has positive employment growth prospects as Australia’s labour market recovers from the impacts of COVID-19. Taking projected employment growth data from before the pandemic, changes to job vacancies and employment at the peak of the pandemic, and indications of an occupation’s recovery in job vacancies, the NSC has been able to create a list of resilient occupations.

Resilient occupations are most likely to occur in the following occupational groups:

  • Professionals (for example, Speech Professionals and Audiologists, Other Medical Practitioners and Midwives).
  • Community and Personal Service Workers (Aged and Disabled Carers and Security Officers and Guards).
  • Machinery Operators and Drivers (Agricultural, Forestry and Horticultural Plant Operators and Delivery Drivers).

Most of these occupations are likely to require post-school qualifications, highlighting the importance of undertaking further study after you leave school. More information on these occupations can be found in the Jobs by Occupation section.

Resilient industries

Looking at the occupations that proved to be the most resilient during the COVID-19 pandemic, the NSC also determined their distribution across industries, with the following showing greater resilience than the national average:

  • Health Care and Social Assistance
  • Education and Training
  • Construction
  • Mining
  • Transport, Postal and Warehousing
  • Administrative and Support Services.

For more information on these industries, see the Jobs by Industry section. 

Emerging occupations

In response to COVID-19, the need to adapt and learn new skills has arisen quite quickly. For example, manufacturers have learnt new techniques to make unfamiliar, in demand products and restaurant owners have quickly developed or enhanced their skills in e-commerce. Nearly everyone, in nearly every office, has had to learn the awkwardness of asking a person on a teleconference to unmute their microphone.

The NSC has also been identifying these emerging skills and looking at how these skills change existing jobs. By doing so, we have identified emerging or new occupations in the labour market. Examples of these emerging occupations include Social Media Specialists and Wind Turbine Technicians. More information on these emerging occupations can be found in our Emerging Occupations report.

Jobs by Industry

Jobs by Industry Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:32

Australia's largest employing industries

The top employing occupations for Health Care and Social Assistance are Registered Nurses, Aged and Disabled Carers and Child Carers

Health Care and Social Assistance accounts for 14% of Australian workers, and 78% are female.

The top employing occupations for Retail Trade are General Sales Assistants, Retail Managers and Checkout Operations and Office Cashiers. Construction.

Retail Trade accounts for 10% of Australian workers, and 31% are aged 15 to 24 years.

The top employing occupations for Construction are Carpenters and Joiners, Electricians and Construction Managers.

Construction accounts for 9% of Australian workers. 50% have a cert 3 or higher vet qualification.

The top employing occupations for Professionals, Scientific and Technical Services are Accountants, Software and Applications Programmers and Solicitors.

Professionals, Scientific and Technical Services accounts for 9% of Australian workers. 78% are full-time.

The top employing occupations for Education and Training are Primary School Teachers, Secondary School Teachers and Education Aides.

Education and Training accounts for 9% of Australian workers. 89% hold post-school qualifications.

This image displays the top five largest employing industries in Australia. Health Care and Social Assistance. This industry accounts for 14% of Australian workers. 78% are female and the top employing occupations are Registered Nurses, Aged and Disabled Carers and Child Carers. Retail Trade. This industry accounts for 10% of Australian workers. 31% are aged 15 to 24 years and the top employing occupations are General Sales Assistants, Retail Managers and Checkout Operations and Office Cashiers. Construction. This industry accounts for 9% of Australian workers. 50% have a cert 3 or higher vet qualification and the top employing occupations are Carpenters and Joiners, Electricians and Construction Managers. Professionals, Scientific and Technical Services. This industry accounts for 9% of Australian workers. 78% are full-time and the top employing occupations are Accountants, Software and Applications Programmers and Solicitors. Education and Training. This industry accounts for 9% of Australian workers. 89% hold post-school qualifications and the top employing occupations are Primary School Teachers, Secondary School Teachers and Education Aides.

Health Care and Social Assistance

Health Care and Social Assistance Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 11:34

This image shows 32% of jobs are regional. 9% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 10% of workers are self-employed.

46% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 31% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 18% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Health Care and Social Assistance is Australia’s largest employing industry and, given the COVID-19 pandemic, has a critically important workforce. It covers health services like hospitals, General Practitioners, dental and ambulance services, as well as services like child care and aged care.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Registered Nurses
Aged and Disabled Carers
Child Carers
Nursing Support and Personal Care Workers
Receptionists
General Practitioners and Resident Medical Officers
Welfare Support Workers
General Clerks
Physiotherapists
Kitchenhands
Psychologists
Dental Assistants
Social Workers
Practice Managers
Medical Technicians
Health and Welfare Services Managers
Enrolled and Mothercraft Nurses
Commercial Cleaners
Welfare, Recreation and Community Arts Workers
Midwives

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This industry has a large proportion of part-time workers, with 46% of the workforce employed part-time (compared with the Australian average of 31%). There is also a significant share of female workers in Health Care and Social Assistance (nearly four in five workers are female).

Post-school education is commonly required in this industry with more than 80% of workers having a post-school qualification. Qualifications are often mandatory for employment but training opportunities exist in both the higher education and VET sectors.

Demand is expected to continue for this industry, given the COVID-19 pandemic and Australia’s ageing population.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Education and Training

Education and Training Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:01

This image shows 32% of jobs are regional. 9% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 7% of workers are self-employed.

64% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 20% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 11% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Education and Training is one of Australia’s largest employing industries and includes teaching occupations across all levels of schools, as well as University Lecturers and Tutors. Around 71% of the workforce is female, the second highest percentage for any industry within Australia. Part-time work is also relatively common (around 40% of jobs).

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Primary School Teachers
Secondary School Teachers
Education Aides
University Lecturers and Tutors
Private Tutors and Teachers
General Clerks
Child Carers
Early Childhood (Pre-primary School) Teachers
Special Education Teachers
Vocational Education Teachers
School Principals
Sports Coaches, Instructors and Officials
Education Advisers and Reviewers
Commercial Cleaners
Office Managers
Counsellors
Other Education Managers
Contract, Program and Project Administrators
Receptionists
Bookkeepers

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Most people who work in Education and Training have post-school qualifications, with almost two-thirds of workers holding a bachelor degree or higher (the highest of any industry). Reflecting the time taken to gain these qualifications, only 9% of this workforce is aged 15 to 24 years old. While most jobs need a university degree, lower skilled jobs like Education Aides can provide an employment pathway.

In addition, a relatively large share of workers are aged 55 years or older (22%), which suggests retirements will create employment opportunities in this industry over the next decade.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Construction

Construction Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:04

This image shows 33% of jobs are regional. 15% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 37% of workers are self-employed.

12% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 50% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 3% of workers hold an other qualification. 35% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Construction is one of Australia’s largest employing industries, with employment opportunities available at all skill and experience levels across the country. The most common entry into this industry is through the completion of an apprenticeship or traineeship, which is reflected in the workforce’s educational attainment (50% of workers possess a certificate III or higher VET qualification).

Just over one in three workers, though, do not possess any post-school qualifications and 16% of the workforce are Labourers which suggests there are some good entry level opportunities.

Top employing occupations

Occupation
Carpenters and Joiners
Electricians
Construction Managers
Plumbers
Building and Plumbing Labourers
Painting Trades Workers
Architectural, Building and Surveying Technicians
Concreters
Earthmoving Plant Operators
Plasterers
Civil Engineering Professionals
Gardeners
Bricklayers and Stonemasons
General Clerks
Handypersons
Insulation and Home Improvement Installers
Office Managers
Accounting Clerks
Truck Drivers
Wall and Floor Tilers

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This industry offers plenty of opportunities for self-employment, and more than one in three workers report being their own boss. More information on self-employment.

Construction has the lowest percentage of female employment of any industry within Australia (13%).

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work

Manufacturing

Manufacturing Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:06

This image shows 31% of jobs are regional. 11% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 11% of workers are self-employed.

19% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 35% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 41% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Australia’s Manufacturing industry is a very diverse workforce and covers the manufacture of food and beverages, petroleum and coal, polymer products, machinery, furniture and more.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Structural Steel and Welding Trades Workers
Production Managers
Metal Fitters and Machinists
Packers
Food and Drink Factory Workers
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Product Assemblers
Storepersons
Cabinetmakers
Bakers and Pastrycooks
Sales Assistants (General)
Forklift Drivers
Manufacturers
Meat, Poultry and Seafood Process Workers
Purchasing and Supply Logistics Clerks
Accounting Clerks
Office Managers
Engineering Production Workers
Sales Representatives
Industrial, Mechanical and Production Engineers

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While it is common for workers to hold a certificate III or higher VET qualification, employers in this industry also value trade experience and practical knowledge. This is shown by the sizeable proportion of workers who do not have post-school qualifications (around 40% of the workforce). While around 100,000 young people are employed in Manufacturing, they represent a relatively small part of this industry (11% are aged 15 to 24 years old).

Employment in this industry is typically full-time (85%).

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:13

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Professional, Scientific and Technical Services is a large and diverse industry and includes legal and accounting services, veterinary services, and computer system design. Employment is mostly located in capital cities and 64% of jobs are concentrated in New South Wales and Victoria.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Accountants
Software and Applications Programmers
Solicitors
Management and Organisation Analysts
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Graphic and Web Designers, and Illustrators
Advertising and Marketing Professionals
Architects and Landscape Architects
Bookkeepers
General Clerks
ICT Support Technicians
Civil Engineering Professionals
Architectural, Building and Surveying Technicians
ICT Managers
Veterinary Nurses
Office Managers
Computer Network Professionals
ICT Business and Systems Analysts
Accounting Clerks
Conveyancers and Legal Executives

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This is a highly skilled workforce, with more than 80% holding post-school qualifications. Professionals represent 59% of this industry and more than a quarter are self-employed.

A small share of this workforce is young (aged 15 to 24 years old), reflecting the time it takes to attain the required qualifications.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Financial and Insurance Services

Financial and Insurance Services Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:17

This image shows 14% of jobs are regional. 6% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 12% of workers are self-employed.

53% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 24% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 3% of workers hold an other qualification. 20% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Employment in the Financial and Insurance Services industry includes banking, insurance and superannuation funds, as well as financial brokering services. Employment is concentrated primarily in capital cities, particularly along Australia’s east coast, with nearly half the workforce located in New South Wales.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Bank Workers
Financial Investment Advisers and Managers
Financial Brokers
Insurance, Money Market and Statistical Clerks
Credit and Loans Officers
Software and Applications Programmers
Accountants
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
General Clerks
Finance Managers
Financial Dealers
Insurance Agents
Other Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers
Auditors, Company Secretaries and Corporate Treasurers
Management and Organisation Analysts
Database and Systems Administrators, and ICT Security Specialists
Information Officers
Accounting Clerks
ICT Business and Systems Analysts
ICT Managers

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This workforce is highly qualified, with 80% holding post-school qualifications (compared with 68% across all industries). Almost all jobs are for Professionals, Clerical and Administrative Workers and Managers.

Reflecting the time it takes to attain the required qualifications, a small share of this workforce is aged 15 to 24 years old (just 6%). That said, Bank Workers is the largest employing occupation within Financial and Insurance Services and this role generally does not require post-school qualifications and can provide a pathway into the industry.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Retail Trade

Retail Trade Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:19

This image shows 32% of jobs are regional. 31% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 11% of workers are self-employed.

 18% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 26% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 52% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Australia’s economy and jobs market will take time to rebound from the impacts of COVID-19. While Retail Trade was one of the most severely affected industries, businesses are gradually reopening and transitioning to new ways of working. Despite these challenges, Retail Trade remains Australia’s second largest employing industry.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
General Sales Assistants
Retail Managers
Checkout Operators and Office Cashiers
Shelf Fillers
Pharmacy Sales Assistants
Storepersons
Retail Supervisors
Motor Vehicle and Vehicle Parts Salespersons
Pharmacists
Purchasing and Supply Logistics Clerks
Motor Mechanics
Sales Representatives
Butchers and Smallgoods Makers
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
General Clerks
Service Station Attendants
Bakers and Pastrycooks
Delivery Drivers
Information Officers
Forklift Drivers

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Retail Trade employs more young people than most other industries. This is because entry level roles within the industry generally do not require prior experience or qualifications, with more than half of the workers having no post-school qualifications. Many occupations in the industry can also provide flexible hours, allowing work around school and other commitments.

It is important to remember that jobs in this industry might not always be formally advertised. When looking for work in Retail Trade, remember to ask friends, family and any other contacts if they are aware of any job opportunities. Opportunities might be available by word of mouth, or via signs in shop windows and through social media.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Wholesale Trade

Wholesale Trade Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:26

This image shows 24% of jobs are regional. 9% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 14% of workers are self-employed. .

25% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 28% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 42% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification

Wholesalers do not usually have a shopfront to sell their items; they are the middle step between producers and retailers. Wholesale Trade is one of the smaller employing industries, with employment mainly located in the capital cities along Australia’s east coast.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Storepersons
Sales Representatives
Purchasing and Supply Logistics Clerks
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Importers, Exporters and Wholesalers
Technical Sales Representatives
Truck Drivers
General Sales Assistants
Accounting Clerks
Forklift Drivers
Retail Managers
Supply, Distribution and Procurement Managers
Office Managers
General Clerks
Delivery Drivers
Metal Fitters and Machinists
Accountants
Packers
Advertising and Marketing Professionals
Bookkeepers

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Despite its relatively small size, Wholesale Trade has opportunities across many occupations, with most jobs being for Managers, Clerical and Administrative Workers, Sales Workers and Machinery Operators and Drivers. While more than 40% of this workforce does not have post-school qualifications, only a small share of this industry are younger workers (9% are aged 15 to 24 years).

Although entry level opportunities exist in every industry, positions in Wholesale Trade may be better suited to older job seekers who possess the practical experience employers seek.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Mining

Mining Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:30

This image shows 51% of jobs are regional. 6% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 1% of workers are self-employed.

 24% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 43% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 2% of workers hold an other qualification. 31% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Mining is an important industry in terms of its export revenue, but it is a relatively small employing industry (accounting for around 2% of Australian jobs).

Employment is largely concentrated in Western Australia and Queensland, and the majority of jobs are located in regional areas. Workers are often expected to travel for work, with fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) arrangements relatively common.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Drillers, Miners and Shot Firers
Metal Fitters and Machinists
Truck Drivers
Other Building and Engineering Technicians
Electricians
Production Managers
Structural Steel and Welding Trades Workers
Mining Engineers
Other Stationary Plant Operators
Earthmoving Plant Operators
Accountants
Geologists, Geophysicists and Hydrogeologists
Contract, Program and Project Administrators
Other Construction and Mining Labourers
Purchasing and Supply Logistics Clerks
Storepersons
Structural Steel Construction Workers
Motor Mechanics
Human Resource Managers
Occupational and Environmental Health Professionals

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Post-school qualifications are often required to work in Mining. Around 40% of workers hold a certificate III or higher vocational qualification, and 24% possess a bachelor degree or higher. One third of workers are Machinery Operators and Drivers, 26% are Technicians and Trades Workers and 18% are Professionals.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; Australia Government Department of Agriculture, ABARES farm survey results 2018, September 2019.

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:33

`This image shows 82% of jobs are regional. 10% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 56% of workers are self-employed.

16% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 27% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 8% of workers hold an other qualification. 49% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing is an industry largely made up of workers employed in agribusiness. Most are farmers, living in regional Australia and managing their own properties. This is reflected in the high level of self-employment (around one in two workers, the highest percentage of any industry). Around 40% of workers are aged 55 years or older (again, the highest of any industry). While many industries across Australia have been negatively affected by COVID-19, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing continues to present employment opportunities through seasonal work such as fruit picking.

Top Emerging Occupations

Occupation
Livestock Farmers
Crop Farmers
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farmers
Livestock Farm Workers
Crop Farm Workers
Agricultural, Forestry and Horticultural Plant Operators
Bookkeepers
Truck Drivers
Packers
Deck and Fishing Hands
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farm Workers
Accounting Clerks
Agricultural and Forestry Scientists
General Clerks
Garden and Nursery Labourers
Gardeners
Shearers
Other Farm, Forestry and Garden Workers
Other Miscellaneous Technicians and Trades Workers
Office Managers

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The need for formal qualifications is less common, with around half of this workforce having no post-school qualifications. Instead, practical skills and experience are more highly valued, with many of these skills being learnt on the job. Formal qualifications, though, can be gained through the VET sector. It is important to note that technologically advanced production systems (i.e. farm automation, artificial intelligence) are becoming more common and the employers who use such systems will require more highly skilled workers.

When looking for work in this industry, seasonal work is fairly common and may present short-term opportunities for job seekers of all ages.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; Australia Government Department of Agriculture, ABARES farm survey results 2018, September 2019.

Accommodation and Food Services

Accommodation and Food Services Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:34

This image shows 34% of jobs are regional. 45% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 11% of workers are self-employed.

18% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 23% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 7% of workers hold an other qualification. 52% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Accommodation and Food Services provides many opportunities for young people looking for their first job, or for mature aged workers looking to re-enter the workforce. Most entry level roles within this industry generally do not need prior experience or qualifications, with more than half of the workers not having post-school qualifications. Many occupations also provide flexible hours (around 61% of workers are employed part-time), allowing for work around school and other commitments.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Waiters
Kitchenhands
Bar Attendants and Baristas
Chefs
General Sales Assistants
Cafe and Restaurant Managers
Fast Food Cooks
Retail Managers
Cooks
Cafe Workers
Checkout Operators and Office Cashiers
Hotel and Motel Managers
Delivery Drivers
Commercial Cleaners
Receptionists
Housekeepers
Hotel Service Managers
Retail Supervisors
Conference and Event Organisers
Licensed Club Managers

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This is one of the industries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite this, Accommodation and Food Services continues to provide many jobs, even if some of these jobs have changed to reflect this particular situation (for example, wait staff becoming delivery drivers). As lockdown restrictions ease, businesses in this industry are expected to see a significant increase in demand.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Arts and Recreation Services

Arts and Recreation Services Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:35

This image shows 27% of jobs are regional. 23% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 17% of workers are self-employed.

29% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 25% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 7% of workers hold an other qualification. 39% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Arts and Recreation Services has a relatively young workforce (23% are aged 15 to 24 years), with most employed as Community and Personal Service Workers (27% of employment) or Professionals (23%).

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on employment in the Arts and Recreation Services industry. While some organisations have been gradually reopening and transitioning to new ways of working, businesses in some parts of the country remain on hold.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Sports Coaches, Instructors and Officials
Sportspersons
Fitness Instructors
Amusement, Fitness and Sports Centre Managers
Music Professionals
Gardeners
Other Specialist Managers
Greenkeepers
Actors, Dancers and Other Entertainers
Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals
Gaming Workers
Receptionists
Authors, and Book and Script Editors
General Clerks
Environmental Scientists
Bar Attendants and Baristas
Information Officers
Other Miscellaneous Labourers
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Sales Assistants (General)

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Businesses using alternative delivery methods and technologies to engage with customers are creating new employment opportunities. For example, delivering fitness classes via online video conferencing, live streaming or video on demand may be solutions in the short-term (recognising that this may not be possible for every business within this industry).

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Transport, Postal and Warehousing

Transport, Postal and Warehousing Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:37

This image shows 25% of jobs are regional. 8% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 20% of workers are self-employed.

21% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 31% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 4% of workers hold an other qualification. 44% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Transport, Postal and Warehousing is a diverse industry that revolves around the movement of people and goods by road, rail or air. Postal and courier services, warehousing and storage are also included.

While qualifications are generally not required for occupations in this industry (almost half of the workers do not have post-school qualifications), licences and tickets may be needed. Examples include a forklift licence, truck/heavy vehicle licence, construction white card and working at heights ticket.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Truck Drivers
Automobile Drivers
Couriers and Postal Deliverers
Storepersons
Bus and Coach Drivers
Delivery Drivers
Forklift Drivers
Transport and Despatch Clerks
Supply, Distribution and Procurement Managers
Train and Tram Drivers
Purchasing and Supply Logistics Clerks
Air Transport Professionals
Freight and Furniture Handlers
Transport Services Managers
Travel Attendants
General Clerks
Other Miscellaneous Labourers
Mail Sorters
Other Mobile Plant Operators
Sales Assistants (General)

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Around one in five workers are either self-employed or work part-time, suggesting that there are options for contract work or flexible hours across many occupations in this industry, including Bus and Coach Drivers, Delivery Drivers and Truck Drivers.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services

Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:41

This image shows 33% of jobs are regional. 6% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 5% of workers are self-employed.

32% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 35% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 7% of workers hold an other qualification. 26% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services is a relatively small employing industry, accounting for around 1% of Australian jobs.

This industry covers electricity supply, generation, transmission and distribution, gas supply, water supply as well as sewerage and waste disposal.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Truck Drivers
Electricians
Electrical Distribution Trades Workers
Other Stationary Plant Operators
Contract, Program and Project Administrators
Electrical Engineers
Chemical, Gas, Petroleum and Power Generation Plant Operators
Accountants
General Clerks
Information Officers
Plumbers
Other Specialist Managers
Accounting Clerks
Management and Organisation Analysts
Civil Engineering Professionals
Building and Plumbing Labourers
Earthmoving Plant Operators
Metal Fitters and Machinists
Other Factory Process Workers
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers

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This industry covers electricity supply, generation, transmission and distribution, gas supply, water supply as well as sewerage and waste disposal.

This industry has a highly skilled workforce, with nearly three quarters of the workforce having a post-school qualification (74%). The VET sector is the main training pathway and entry into this industry is predominantly though the completion of an apprenticeship or traineeship. Information on VET pathways can be found in the Education and Training section.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Administrative and Support Services

Administrative and Support Services Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:42

This image shows 28% of jobs are regional. 11% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 27% of workers are self-employed.

23% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 28% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 43% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Administrative and Support Services is a small but essential industry which covers many services including office administration, debt collection, call centres, travel agencies, building cleaning, pest control and gardening services.

Given the top two employing occupations in this industry are cleaner roles, demand for these services is likely to be maintained as businesses increase both the frequency and rigorousness of their cleaning schedules.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Commercial Cleaners
Domestic Cleaners
Human Resource Professionals
Gardeners
Tourism and Travel Advisers
Garden and Nursery Labourers
Conference and Event Organisers
General Clerks
Call or Contact Centre Workers
Office Managers
Human Resource Managers
Other Farm, Forestry and Garden Workers
Other Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers
Other Cleaners
Accounting Clerks
Other Miscellaneous Labourers
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Packers
Accountants
Keyboard Operators

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This industry provides good part-time employment opportunities, with 42% of the workforce employed in this manner. Many jobs also do not need post-school qualifications, although some practical experience may be highly regarded by employers. Jobs like cleaning and gardening can be physically demanding and may not be suited to all job seekers.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Public Administration and Safety

Public Administration and Safety Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:43

This image shows 30% of jobs are regional. 6% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 2% of workers are self-employed.

43% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 31% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 21% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Public Administration and Safety includes federal, state and local government administration and services like the police force. It was one of the few industries to experience growth over the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in workers is potentially due to the development and implementation of support programs as part of the Australian Government’s Coronavirus economic response, or equivalent state/territory government initiatives.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
General Clerks
Police
Contract, Program and Project Administrators
Security Officers and Guards
Inspectors and Regulatory Officers
Intelligence and Policy Analysts
Information Officers
Prison Officers
Other Miscellaneous Labourers
Office Managers
Welfare Support Workers
Policy and Planning Managers
Accounting Clerks
Fire and Emergency Workers
Other Information and Organisation Professionals
Accountants
Other Specialist Managers
Welfare, Recreation and Community Arts Workers
Human Resource Professionals
Keyboard Operators

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This workforce is highly skilled (more than three quarters of workers hold post-school qualifications), relatively old (just 6% are aged 15 to 24 years) and full-time work is common (83% of employment). Given this, there are fewer opportunities for entry level positions within this industry. All federal government departments, though, offer graduate programs for university graduates interested in a career in the Australian Public Service.

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Information Media and Telecommunications

Information Media and Telecommunications Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:48

This image 17% of jobs are regional. 11% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 14% of workers are self-employed.

43% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 26% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 4% of workers hold an other qualification. 27% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

While Information Media and Telecommunications is a relatively small industry (representing around 2% of employment within Australia), it has a diverse profile and includes businesses such as newspaper and internet publishers, television and radio broadcasters, and telecommunications infrastructure and networks.

Employment is predominantly located in Sydney or Melbourne, but around one in five jobs are in regional Australia. It is a highly skilled workforce, with more than two thirds having a post-school qualification. Around 45% of workers are Professionals, 17% are Technicians and Trades Workers, 15% are Managers, and a further 12% are Clerical and Administrative Workers.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Telecommunications Trades Workers
Film, Television, Radio and Stage Directors
Journalists and Other Writers
Artistic Directors, and Media Producers and Presenters
Telecommunications Engineering Professionals
ICT Managers
Software and Applications Programmers
Librarians
Performing Arts Technicians
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Graphic and Web Designers, and Illustrators
Contract, Program and Project Administrators
Accountants
Computer Network Professionals
Advertising and Marketing Professionals
Ticket Salespersons
General Clerks
Sales Representatives
ICT Sales Assistants
Gallery, Library and Museum Technicians

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While qualifications are generally mandatory for the more technical roles, employers in some sectors of the industry (for example, publishing and broadcasting) may also value prior experience. A portfolio is a good way to present evidence of your relevant skills and abilities. 

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services

Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 14:49

This image 25% of jobs are regional. 10% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 25% of workers are self-employed. .

32% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 31% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 31% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification

While Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services has shown some growth over the past few years, it remains a relatively small industry. Almost 42% of the workforce are Sales Workers, with Real Estate Sales Agents accounting for most of these.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Real Estate Sales Agents
General Clerks
Other Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers
Land Economists and Valuers
Receptionists
Office Managers
Accountants
Accounting Clerks
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Construction Managers
Other Sales Assistants and Salespersons
Bookkeepers
Information Officers
Personal Assistants
Commercial Cleaners
Contract, Program and Project Administrators
Advertising and Marketing Professionals
Secretaries
Metal Fitters and Machinists
Financial Investment Advisers and Managers

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Workers in this industry generally have a broad range of qualifications, indicating that employment opportunities exist for people of all skill levels and qualifications. Work is commonly full-time (71%).

Around 10% of workers are aged between 15 to 24 years old (below the national average of 14%).

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Jobs by Occupation

Jobs by Occupation Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:41

Managers. 1 in 4 are aged 55 years or old and the top employing occupations are Retail Managers, Advertising, Publication Relations and Sales Managers and Construction Managers.

Professionals. 3 out of 4 hold a bachelor degree or higher qualification and the top employing occupations are Registered Nurses, Accountants and Primary School Teachers.

Technicians and Trades Workers. 84% are employed full-time and the top employing occupations are Electricians, Metal Fitters and Machinists and Carpenters and Joiners.

Community and Personal Service Workers. More than 40% are employed in Health Care and Social Assistance and the top employing occupations are Aged and Disabled Carers, Child Carers and Education Aides.

Clerical and Administrative Workers. Almost 3 in 4 workers identify as female and the top employing occupations are General Clerks, Receptionists and Accounting Clerks.

Sales Workers. 38% are aged 15 to 24 years and the top employing occupations are General Sales Assistants, Checkout Operators and Office Cashiers and Real Estate Sales Agents.

Machinery Operators and Drivers. 81% are employed full-time and the top employing occupations are Truck Drivers, Storepersons and Delivery Drivers.

Labourers. Around 60% do not hold post-school qualifications and the top employing occupations are Commercial Cleaners, Kitchenhands and Building and Plumbing Labourers.

Managers

Managers Jon Wundersitz Wed, 11/04/2020 - 14:43

The Managers graphic shows 32% of jobs are regional. 4% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 32% of workers are self-employed.

The Managers graphic shows 38% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 30% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 27% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

A large number of Australians are employed as Managers and they work in many different types of organisations across all industries.

Are qualifications or experience needed?

This is a relatively skilled group, as Managers generally hold senior positions, taking responsibility for staff and operations. This means qualifications are usually needed, however, sometimes significant on-the-job experience is sufficient.

  • The majority of Managers hold post-school qualifications, although this is less common for Farmers and Farm Managers and Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers.
  • The need for workplace experience is reflected in the age profile of the workforce. Half of all Managers are aged 45 years or older. Just 4% are aged 15 to 24 years, although there are more opportunities for young people in Hospitality, Retail and Service Manager roles (accounting for 8% of this group).

Managers are typically skilled in communication and building relationships, planning, budgeting and problem solving.

Top Employing Occupations

Occupation
Retail Managers
Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Construction Managers
Livestock Farmers
Human Resource Managers
Other Specialist Managers
Finance Managers
ICT Managers
Other Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers
Production Managers
Cafe and Restaurant Managers
Supply, Distribution and Procurement Managers
Crop Farmers
General Managers
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farmers
Chief Executives and Managing Directors
Conference and Event Organisers
Policy and Planning Managers
Call or Contact Centre and Customer Service Managers
Health and Welfare Services Managers

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In which industries do Managers work?

Managers work in every industry, but the largest shares are in Retail Trade and Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (both 12%). Other major employing industries include Accommodation and Food Services (9%) and Manufacturing (9%).

Some Manager occupations are concentrated in specific industries. For example, Café and Restaurant Managers are mainly employed in Accommodation and Food Services. For other Manager occupations, such as General Managers and Human Resource Managers, employment is spread across all industries.

Are there job opportunities?

When looking for Manager vacancies, remember they are not always advertised online. Some positions are filled by the promotion of existing workers, while others are advertised in less formal ways such as word of mouth or head hunting. It is important for job seekers who are looking for Manager positions to remember this and use professional networks to help bolster their recruitment chances.

Will there be future opportunities?

Managers often perform a range of non-routine, cognitive duties (such as problem solving) so this occupation group is less susceptible to automation.

Employment by occupation subgroup, Managers

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Occupation subgroup % % % % % % %
Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators 11 27 0 30 54 27 12
Farmers and Farm Managers 20 29 4 54 19 29 46
Specialist Managers 10 36 2 21 50 28 19
Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers 17 48 8 21 24 35 35
All Managers 14 38 4 25 38 30 27

Sources: ABS, Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data).

Professionals

Professionals Jon Wundersitz Wed, 11/04/2020 - 14:46

The Professionals graphic shows 23% of jobs are regional. 7% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 15% of workers are self-employed.

The Professionals graphic shows 75% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 14% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification.3 % of workers hold an other qualification. 8% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Professionals is the largest employing occupation group in Australia (accounting for around one in four workers).

There are clear differences in the representation of men and women across occupations in the Professionals group. Around 74% of Health Professionals and 72% of Education Professionals are female, but 79% of ICT Professionals are male. The extent of part-time employment also varies, being relatively rare for ICT Professionals but more common for Health Professionals, Arts and Media Professionals, and Education Professionals.

In which industries do Professionals work?

Around two thirds of Professionals are employed in just three industries.

  • Health Care and Social Assistance (24% of Professional employment).
  • Education and Training (21%).
  • Professional, Scientific and Technical Services (21%).

Are qualifications needed?

Most Professional jobs require a bachelor degree or higher qualification (75% of Professionals have this level of qualification), with university study the main pathway for employment. Reflecting the time it takes to gain relevant qualifications, a relatively small proportion of Professionals is aged 15 to 24 years.

In addition to qualifications, skills that are often required to be a Professional include communication, planning, project management, problem solving, writing and research.

Top employing occupations

Occupation
Registered Nurses
Accountants
Primary School Teachers
Software and Applications Programmers
Secondary School Teachers
Advertising and Marketing Professionals
Solicitors
Management and Organisation Analysts
University Lecturers and Tutors
Civil Engineering Professionals
General Practitioners and Resident Medical Officers
Human Resource Professionals
Graphic and Web Designers, and Illustrators
Early Childhood (Pre-primary School) Teachers
Financial Investment Advisers and Managers
Database and Systems Administrators, and ICT Security Specialists
Computer Network Professionals
Private Tutors and Teachers
Industrial, Mechanical and Production Engineers
Vocational Education Teachers

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Are there job opportunities?

There will continue to be job opportunities for Professionals. Along with the rising demand for these workers, however, the supply of university educated Australians is also increasing, with higher education enrolments increasing significantly over the past decade. With more university graduates, and more people searching for work, there are now large numbers of qualified applicants competing for some Professional occupations.

With increased competition, job seekers are encouraged to be as flexible as possible with their availability and highlight their transferable skills and experience. Employers will be looking for reliable and flexible workers, with good communication skills who can learn new tasks quickly and adapt to new working environments. If you can, give examples from your work history which highlight these skills and make you stand out from the crowd.

Will there be future opportunities?

Professionals perform analytical, conceptual and creative tasks which are less susceptible to technological automation.

Employment by occupation subgroup, Professionals

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
Occupation subgroup Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Arts and Media Professionals 37 52 11 18 52 21 23
Business, Human Resource and Marketing Professionals 19 51 6 16 69 16 12
Design, Engineering, Science and Transport Professionals 16 31 8 14 74 15 8
Education Professionals 34 72 8 20 84 10 4
Health Professionals 38 74 6 20 80 14 3
ICT Professionals 9 21 5 12 69 13 11
Legal, Social and Welfare Professionals 29 67 4 22 78 16 5
All Professionals 26 55 7 17 75 14 8

Sources: ABS, Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data).

Technicians and Trades Workers

Technicians and Trades Workers Jon Wundersitz Wed, 11/04/2020 - 14:48

The Technicians and Trades Workers graphic shows 35% of jobs are regional. 16% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 25% of workers are self-employed.

The Technicians and Trades Workers graphic shows 11% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 57% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 27% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Technicians and Trades Workers undertake a variety of skilled manual tasks. They apply technical, trade or industry specific knowledge in construction, manufacturing, scientific, engineering and other activities.

Regional employment is fairly common with more than a third of workers employed across regional Australia. A relatively large proportion of this group are self-employed (25%), particularly Construction Trades Workers (47%), and full-time work is common.

Technicians and Trades Workers has the second lowest percentage of female workers of any occupation group (16%). This is especially apparent for Automotive and Engineering Trades Workers, Construction Trades Workers, and Electrotechnology and Telecommunications Trades Workers. That said, some occupations have large shares of female workers, such as Veterinary Nurses (97%) and Hairdressers (85%).

What qualifications and skills are needed?

Almost 60% of Technicians and Trades Workers hold a certificate III or higher vocational qualification, with apprenticeships and traineeships providing a key training pathway for many occupations in this group.

Common skills that are needed include general employability skills (such as communication, planning and problem solving) that are valued across most occupations.

Top employing occupations

Occupation
Electricians
Metal Fitters and Machinists
Carpenters and Joiners
Plumbers
Structural Steel and Welding Trades Workers
Motor Mechanics
Chefs
Architectural, Building and Surveying Technicians
Gardeners
ICT Support Technicians
Hairdressers
Painting Trades Workers
Cooks
Medical Technicians
Plasterers
Other Building and Engineering Technicians
Electronics Trades Workers
Airconditioning and Refrigeration Mechanics
Bakers and Pastrycooks
Telecommunications Trades Workers

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In which industries are Technicians and Trades Workers employed?

Construction accounts for the largest share of these workers (33%), followed by Manufacturing (14%) and Other Services (which includes automotive repair and maintenance) (13%).

Are there job opportunities?

With federal and state governments introducing or bringing forward infrastructure projects, and the new HomeBuilder program supporting jobs in the residential construction sector, these will help the Construction industry (and therefore Technicians and Trades Workers) remain an important source of jobs for Australians now and into the future.

Many vacancies for Technicians and Trades Workers can be advertised informally. When seeking work, it pays to be proactive by approaching employers directly (e.g. by email or by phone), checking social media, including jobs groups on social media platforms and reaching out through your network of family and friends.

Will there be future opportunities?

The tasks performed in this group are diverse. Some are routine, manual tasks which may be at risk of automation, although many occupations involve non-routine or unpredictable duties which are more difficult to automate.

Employment by occupation subgroup, Technicians and Trades Workers

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
Occupation subgroup Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Engineering, ICT and Science Technicians 15 26 6 18 31 45 18
Automotive and Engineering Trades Workers 6 1 17 17 5 67 22
Construction Trades Workers 12 1 21 13 4 61 33
Electrotechnology and Telecommunications Trades Workers 8 2 19 14 7 64 24
Food Trades Workers 29 32 16 14 13 49 34
Skilled Animal and Horticultural Workers 34 36 17 22 11 39 42
Other Technicians and Trades Workers 31 45 13 18 10 58 27
All Technicians and Trades Workers 16 16 16 16 11 57 27

Sources: ABS, Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); National Skills Commission, A snapshot in time: The Australian labour market and COVID-19; National Skills Commission, Employers' Recruitment Insights.

Community and Personal Service Workers

Community and Personal Service Workers Jon Wundersitz Wed, 11/04/2020 - 14:52

The Community and Personal Service Workers graphic shows 34% of jobs are regional. 23% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 9% of workers are self-employed.

The Community and Personal Service Workers graphic shows 21% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 41% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 32% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Community and Personal Service Workers provide a wide range of services, including in the areas of aged and disability care, health and social welfare, child care, hospitality, policing, tourism and sports. Employment is largely concentrated in two industries, with 41% employed in Health Care and Social Assistance and 18% in Accommodation and Food Services.

Workers are mainly female (70%) and part-time employment is common (55%), although there are differences by subgroup. For example, Protective Service Workers (which includes Police, Fire and Emergency Workers and Security Officers and Guards) is largely a male workforce (76%) and has a relatively low level of part-time employment (15%).

Are qualifications needed?

Entry pathways are varied, reflecting the diverse range of services provided by workers in this group. Around 41% of workers have a certificate III or higher vocational qualification, 32% do not hold a post-school qualification and 21% have a bachelor degree or higher.

Health and Welfare Support Workers (which includes Ambulance Officers and Paramedics and Dental Hygienists, Technicians and Therapists) is the most highly educated subgroup, with 88% holding post-school qualifications.

Top employing occupations

Occupation
Aged and Disabled Carers
Child Carers
Education Aides
Waiters
Bar Attendants and Baristas
Nursing Support and Personal Care Workers
Police
Security Officers and Guards
Welfare Support Workers
Cafe Workers
Beauty Therapists
Prison Officers
Sports Coaches, Instructors and Officials
Fitness Instructors
Dental Assistants
Enrolled and Mothercraft Nurses
Massage Therapists
Ambulance Officers and Paramedics
Tourism and Travel Advisers
Fire and Emergency Workers

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Are there job opportunities?

Some occupations in this group provide good entry level employment opportunities. For example, young workers (aged 15 to 24 years) account for 55% of Hospitality Workers and post-school study is often not needed for these jobs. For jobs within the health care sector, check online recruitment websites as they are regularly used by employers. It is important that you also remember to check the websites of big employers, as many will only advertise jobs on their own websites.

Will there be future opportunities?

Jobs in this group typically require skills that are less likely to be automated with technology (such as interpersonal and communication skills). A significant share of the workers in this occupation group are employed in Health Care and Social Assistance and future demand is expected to be driven by population growth, an ageing population and the continued expansion of the National Disability Insurance Scheme.

Employment by occupation subgroup, Community and Personal Service Workers

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
Occupation subgroup Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Health and Welfare Support Workers 42 72 8 23 30 55 12
Carers and Aides 61 84 16 21 20 52 23
Hospitality Workers 73 70 55 6 19 18 58
Protective Service Workers 15 24 9 16 21 44 26
Sports and Personal Service Workers 57 66 23 14 20 38 35
All Community and Personal Service Workers1 55 70 23 17 21 41 32

Sources: ABS, Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); National Skills Commission, Survey of Employers' Recruitment Experiences; Victorian Council of Social Services; Supporting Australia’s future community services workforce.

Clerical and Administrative Workers

Clerical and Administrative Workers Jon Wundersitz Wed, 11/04/2020 - 14:53

The Clerical and Administrative Workers graphic shows 28% of jobs are regional. 10% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 13% of workers are self-employed.

The Clerical and Administrative Workers graphic shows 27% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 30% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 37% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Clerical and Administrative Workers provide support to businesses by organising, storing, manipulating and retrieving information. Employment is spread widely across industries but most jobs are likely to be office-based.

Top employing occupations

Occupation
General Clerks
Receptionists
Accounting Clerks
Contract, Program and Project Administrators
Office Managers
Bookkeepers
Purchasing and Supply Logistics Clerks
Information Officers
Keyboard Operators
Bank Workers
Personal Assistants
Couriers and Postal Deliverers
Payroll Clerks
Inspectors and Regulatory Officers
Transport and Despatch Clerks
Insurance, Money Market and Statistical Clerks
Call or Contact Centre Workers
Secretaries
Credit and Loans Officers
Practice Managers

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There are opportunities in this group for workers who do not hold post-school qualifications, with more than a third of this group not having completed further study. Around one in five Inquiry Clerks and Receptionists are aged 15 to 24 years old, indicating this occupation is suited for job seekers looking for entry level positions.

This workforce is mainly female, with women accounting for 73% of these workers. Within this group, though, there is some variation, with women making up 95% of Personal Assistants and Secretaries but only 33% of Clerical and Office Support Workers.

Sources: ABS, Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); National Skills Commission, Employers' Recruitment Insights.

Sales Workers

Sales Workers Jon Wundersitz Wed, 11/04/2020 - 14:56

The Sales Workers graphic shows 31% of jobs are regional. 38% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 9% of workers are self-employed.

The Sales Workers graphic shows 17% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher.21 % of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 56% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Sales Workers sell goods, services and property, and provide sales support. A large share of these workers are employed in Retail Trade (60%).

Few jobs in this group require post-school qualifications and the workforce is relatively young (38% are aged 15 to 24 years).

Top employing occupations

Occupation
General Sales Assistants
Checkout Operators and Office Cashiers
Real Estate Sales Agents
Sales Representatives
Retail Supervisors
Motor Vehicle and Vehicle Parts Salespersons
Pharmacy Sales Assistants
Insurance Agents
Service Station Attendants
Other Sales Assistants and Salespersons
ICT Sales Assistants
Ticket Salespersons
Telemarketers
Models and Sales Demonstrators
Auctioneers, and Stock and Station Agents
Retail and Wool Buyers
Street Vendors and Related Salespersons
Visual Merchandisers
Other Sales Support Workers

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These are often people’s first jobs and seven day a week trading hours for many retail stores creates part-time employment opportunities for students (57% of jobs are part-time).

Jobs are often advertised through informal methods, while some vacancies are filled through applicants approaching employers for work. Research by the NSC indicates that around 33% of employers advertise by word of mouth, 14% use social media and 12% are approached directly by a job seeker.

Self-employment is relatively rare, with around 9% of workers self-employed.

Sources: ABS, Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); National Skills Commission, Employers' Recruitment Insights.

Machinery Operators and Drivers

Machinery Operators and Drivers Jon Wundersitz Wed, 11/04/2020 - 14:58

The Machinery Operators and Drivers graphic shows 36% of jobs are regional. 10% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 14% of workers are self-employed.

The Machinery Operators and Drivers graphic shows 10% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 30% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 54% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Machinery Operators and Drivers operate machines and vehicles and are mainly employed in Transport, Postal and Warehousing, Manufacturing and Construction. More than one third of workers in this group are employed in regional Australia.

Top employing occupations

Occupation
Truck Drivers
Storepersons
Delivery Drivers
Forklift Drivers
Drillers, Miners and Shot Firers
Automobile Drivers
Earthmoving Plant Operators
Bus and Coach Drivers
Train and Tram Drivers
Other Machine Operators
Engineering Production Workers
Other Stationary Plant Operators
Crane, Hoist and Lift Operators
Agricultural, Forestry and Horticultural Plant Operators
Paper and Wood Processing Machine Operators
Sewing Machinists
Plastics and Rubber Production Machine Operators
Other Mobile Plant Operators
Industrial Spraypainters
Clay, Concrete, Glass and Stone Processing Machine Operators

Show all

Post-school qualifications are often not essential to gain employment in this group, but tickets or licences are mandatory for many positions. Employers value employability skills such as communication, teamwork, problem solving, creativity and initiative.

This occupation group is mostly male (89% of the workforce) and the age profile is relatively old (more than one in four workers is aged 55 years or older).

Sources: ABS, Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); National Skills Commission, Employers' Recruitment Insights.

Labourers

Labourers Jon Wundersitz Wed, 11/04/2020 - 15:04

The Labourers graphic shows 40% of jobs are regional. 25% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 15% of workers are self-employed.

The Labourers graphic shows 10% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 25% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 7% of workers hold an other qualification. 58% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Labourers perform a variety of routine and repetitive physical tasks. Some Labourer jobs require physical fitness (like Building and Plumbing Labourers) but not all involve heavy work (for example, Fast Food Cooks).

Jobs in this group are often advertised informally, with many being filled by applicants approaching the employer directly.

Top employing occupations

Occupation
Commercial Cleaners
Kitchenhands
Building and Plumbing Labourers
Shelf Fillers
Packers
Other Miscellaneous Labourers
Fast Food Cooks
Handypersons
Food and Drink Factory Workers
Livestock Farm Workers
Concreters
Crop Farm Workers
Domestic Cleaners
Product Assemblers
Insulation and Home Improvement Installers
Garden and Nursery Labourers
Structural Steel Construction Workers
Car Detailers
Housekeepers
Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories Fitters

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Most Labourer positions do not generally require post-school qualifications, a large share of workers are aged 15 to 24 years and part-time work is common. Accordingly, there are good opportunities for young people to gain work experience or combine work with study.

While formal qualifications are not necessarily a requirement for these roles, some may require mandatory tickets or licences. In addition, job seekers will generally need to possess a driver's licence and their own personal transport.

Sources: ABS, Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); National Skills Commission, Employers' Recruitment Insights.

Jobs by Location

Jobs by Location Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:44

Nearly two-thirds of Northern Territory jobs are located in Darwin.

34% of Queensland workers hold a certificate 3 or higher vocational qualification.

New South Wales is Australia’s largest employing state. Australian Capital Territory has the most highly educated workforce in Australia.

More than 80% of employment in South Australia is concentrated in Adelaide.

One in four Victorians work in either Health Care or Social Assistance or Retail Trade.

More than half of Tasmanian jobs are located in regional Tasmania.

New South Wales is Australia’s largest employing state. One in four Victorians work in either Health Care or Social Assistance or Retail Trade. 34% of Queensland workers hold a certificate 3 or higher vocational qualification. More than 80% of employment in South Australia is concentrated in Adelaide. Nearly 50% of Mining jobs across Australia are in Western Australia. More than half of Tasmanian jobs are located in regional Tasmania. Northern Territory. Nearly two-thirds of jobs are located in Darwin. The Australian Capital Territory has the most highly educated workforce in Australia.

New South Wales

New South Wales Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 11:32

The New South Wales graphic shows 32% of jobs are regional. 14% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 16% of workers are self-employed.

The New South Wales graphic shows 36% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 28% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 30% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Top employing industries in New South Wales

Industry
Health Care and Social Assistance
Retail Trade
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Construction
Education and Training
Accommodation and Food Services
Manufacturing
Public Administration and Safety
Financial and Insurance Services
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Administrative and Support Services
Other Services
Wholesale Trade
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Information Media and Telecommunications
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
Arts and Recreation Services
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
Mining

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New South Wales is the largest employing state in Australia. Most jobs are in Sydney, which accounts for around 70% of the state’s employment.

Around 70% of the state’s workforce has post-school qualifications and they are more likely to hold a bachelor degree or higher than workers nationally. Greater Sydney is the most highly educated workforce in the state, with 72% holding post-school qualifications (including 42% with a bachelor degree or higher).

There are multiple regions, however, where it is far more common for workers to have VET qualifications rather than those gained through a university (such as the Mid North Coast where 44% of the workforce has a Cert III or higher VET qualification). The age profile of this state is largely in line with the national average, although some regions have relatively large shares of workers aged 15 to 24 years. These include Newcastle, Lake Macquarie, and Murray.

Self-employment may also offer an opportunity for work, or a different career path. While it is less common in New South Wales than in some other areas, around 16% of workers are their own boss.

Employment by region, New South Wales

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qualification No post-school qualification
Region % % % % % % %
Greater Sydney 28 46 14 17 42 25 28
Capital Region 28 46 13 19 24 29 34
Central West 33 47 16 25 25 29 35
Coffs Harbour - Grafton 36 46 15 25 19 38 40
Far West and Orana 29 48 12 24 18 35 39
Hunter Valley (excl. Newcastle) 31 49 16 21 20 42 31
Illawarra 35 46 16 19 26 37 38
Mid North Coast 42 49 17 23 19 44 31
Murray 34 48 19 21 22 32 38
New England and North West 31 48 12 37 17 35 43
Newcastle and Lake Macquarie 32 50 18 16 27 33 32
Richmond - Tweed 41 50 15 29 14 42 30
Riverina 28 48 15 27 17 41 38
Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven 35 50 15 29 25 37 27
New South Wales 30 47 14 19 36 28 30
Australia 31 47 15 19 33 30 32

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Victoria

Victoria Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 13:42

The Victoria graphic shows 18% of jobs are regional. 14% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 17% of workers are self-employed.

The Victoria graphic shows 37% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 28% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 5% of workers hold an other qualification. 30% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Top employing industries in Victoria

Industry
Health Care and Social Assistance
Retail Trade
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Construction
Education and Training
Manufacturing
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Public Administration and Safety
Accommodation and Food Services
Financial and Insurance Services
Wholesale Trade
Other Services
Administrative and Support Services
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
Information Media and Telecommunications
Arts and Recreation Services
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services

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Victoria is the second largest employing state, with the majority of jobs located in Melbourne. While Victorians are employed across all industries, around one in four work in either Health Care and Social Assistance or Retail Trade.

Around 70% of Victorian workers have post-school qualifications, with a relatively large share holding a bachelor degree or higher. Workers in Melbourne are more likely to hold a bachelor degree or higher qualification than those in regional Victoria, where a certificate III or higher VET qualification is more common.

Part-time work is relatively common, accounting for around a third of total employment. Workers in both Geelong and Shepparton are the most likely to be employed in this manner (38% and 37%). A full breakdown of part-time work across the state is available in the table below.

Despite the general downturn, the size and diversity of the Victorian labour market means employment opportunities will continue to exist across all industries. Employers need workers who are resilient, proactive and capable and, if you are able to demonstrate these attributes, you will stand out from the crowd. Digital skills are also important, with continued enhancements in technology affecting jobs and society more broadly. For more information on skills in the future, please see Skills for the future.

Employment by region, Victoria

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Greater Melbourne 31 47 14 17 42 26 28
Ballarat 35 47 14 19 18 40 29
Bendigo 35 47 18 23 26 37 34
Geelong 38 49 17 16 28 34 33
Hume 36 49 9 30 22 36 33
Latrobe - Gippsland 33 47 13 32 15 39 42
North West 33 45 13 26 15 36 44
Shepparton 37 50 17 28 18 31 44
Warrnambool and South West 34 47 17 31 8 32 46
Victoria 32 47 14 19 37 28 30
Australia 31 47 15 19 33 30 32

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Queensland

Queensland Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 13:45

The Queensland graphic shows 50% of jobs are regional. 15% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 18% of workers are self-employed.

The Queensland graphic shows 28% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 34% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 4% of workers hold an other qualification. 34% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Top employing industries in Queensland

Industry
Health Care and Social Assistance
Retail Trade
Construction
Education and Training
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Public Administration and Safety
Manufacturing
Accommodation and Food Services
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Other Services
Wholesale Trade
Financial and Insurance Services
Administrative and Support Services
Mining
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
Arts and Recreation Services
Information Media and Telecommunications
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services

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Queensland is the third largest employing state in Australia, with around half the jobs located in Brisbane and a further 13% in the Gold Coast area.

Given the size and diversity of the Queensland economy, employment opportunities exist across all industries. Health Care and Social Assistance is the largest employing industry in Queensland, with 15% of the state’s employment. There are many roles within this industry that do not require medical qualifications or extensive prior experience. Some of these include Receptionists, General Clerks, Kitchenhands and Commercial Cleaners.

Construction is another large employer, representing around 10% of total employment.

Workers in Queensland are less likely to hold a bachelor degree or higher than the national average, but are more likely to have a certificate III or higher vocational qualification. There is a higher proportion of females employed in this state than the national average and around one in three Queensland workers are employed part-time.

It is worth noting that Queenslanders are more likely to be self-employed than workers in the rest of Australia, with around one in five employed Queenslanders working as their own boss. If you are Australia’s next top young entrepreneur, please see self-employment and entrepreneurship on the government programs which may help you reach your self-employment ambitions.

Employment by region, Queensland

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Greater Brisbane 30 48 15 17 34 31 31
Cairns 31 49 14 21 28 33 38
Darling Downs - Maranoa 27 46 14 25 18 39 42
Fitzroy 26 47 16 22 21 40 35
Gold Coast 34 49 16 18 23 38 36
Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday 27 45 14 18 14 36 46
Queensland - Outback 25 43 18 31 24 26 47
Sunshine Coast 40 50 15 26 26 39 31
Toowoomba 32 49 11 20 23 30 37
Townsville 32 48 16 21 16 41 38
Wide Bay 37 50 15 28 14 39 39
Queensland 31 48 15 19 28 34 34
Australia 31 47 15 19 33 30 32

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

South Australia

South Australia Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 13:46

The South Australia graphic shows 22% of jobs are regional. 15% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 17% of workers are self-employed.

The South Australia graphic shows 26% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 31% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 37% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Top employing industries in South Australia

Industry
Health Care and Social Assistance
Retail Trade
Manufacturing
Education and Training
Construction
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Public Administration and Safety
Accommodation and Food Services
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Administrative and Support Services
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Other Services
Wholesale Trade
Financial and Insurance Services
Mining
Arts and Recreation Services
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
Information Media and Telecommunications
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services

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South Australia has a relatively small workforce, with around 7% of national employment. Employment is concentrated in Adelaide, which accounts for 78% of state employment.

While there are employment opportunities available across all industries, more than one in three workers are employed in Health Care and Social Assistance, Retail Trade or Manufacturing.

Construction and Education and Training each represent 8% of the state’s employment, with a further 6% employed in each of Professional, Scientific and Technical Services, Public Administration and Safety, and Accommodation and Food Services. Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services is South Australia’s smallest industry, accounting for 1% of employment.

Part-time employment is relatively common in this state, accounting for around 36% of employment (compared with the national average of 31%). The Barossa–Yorke–Mid North area (encompassing Clare, Peterborough, Port Pirie, Tanunda and Wallaroo) has the largest proportion of part-time employment in the state.

South Australian workers are less likely to hold post-school qualifications than workers nationally. Reversing the Australian trend, a higher share of workers in this state hold a certificate III or higher vocational qualification (31%) than those who have a bachelor degree or higher (26%).

Employment by region, South Australia

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Greater Adelaide 35 48 15 20 30 30 35
Barossa - Yorke - Mid North 41 50 12 32 15 36 42
South Australia - Outback 34 47 18 20 7 36 54
South Australia - South East 37 47 15 27 12 42 42
South Australia 36 48 15 21 26 31 37
Australia 31 47 15 19 33 30 32

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Western Australia

Western Australia Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 13:49

The West Australia graphic shows 21% of jobs are regional. 14% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 17% of workers are self-employed.

The West Australia graphic shows 29% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 33% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 6% of workers hold an other qualification. 32% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Top employing industries in Western Australia

Industry
Health Care and Social Assistance
Construction
Mining
Retail Trade
Public Administration and Safety
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Education and Training
Accommodation and Food Services
Manufacturing
Other Services
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Administrative and Support Services
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Wholesale Trade
Financial and Insurance Services
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
Arts and Recreation Services
Information Media and Telecommunications

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Western Australia is the fourth largest employing state, with employment mostly located in Perth.

The largest employing industry in Western Australia is Health Care and Social Assistance. Demand for work in this industry is only going to increase given Australia’s ageing population. It is worth noting that not everyone employed in this industry is a doctor or a nurse.

Some of the top employing occupations in Health Care and Social Assistance include Receptionists, General Clerks, Kitchenhands and Commercial Cleaners. These are all occupations that can be perfect entry level positions and generally require minimal qualifications or prior experience.

Unlike the rest of Australia, a large proportion of Western Australians are employed in the Mining industry (around one in 10 workers). Reflecting this, nearly half of total Mining employment is located in Western Australia.

While many jobs across Australia have been adversely affected by COVID-19, some areas of the economy have seen an increase in demand. This includes some areas of Mining and mining services.

Employment by region, Western Australia

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Greater Perth 33 46 14 19 32 32 31
Bunbury 32 46 15 20 14 39 38
Western Australia - Outback 26 43 11 23 19 34 36
Western Australia - Wheat Belt 33 45 12 33 12 40 40
Western Australia 32 46 14 20 29 33 32
Australia 31 47 15 19 33 30 32

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work; National Skills Commission, A snapshot in time: The Australian labour market and COVID-19.

Tasmania

Tasmania Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 13:51

The Tasmania graphic shows 54% of jobs are regional. 15% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 15% of workers are self-employed.

The Tasmania graphic shows 28% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 33% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 7% of workers hold an other qualification. 32% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Top employing industries in Tasmania

Industry
Health Care and Social Assistance
Retail Trade
Education and Training
Accommodation and Food Services
Construction
Public Administration and Safety
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Manufacturing
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Other Services
Administrative and Support Services
Wholesale Trade
Financial and Insurance Services
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
Arts and Recreation Services
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
Information Media and Telecommunications
Mining

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While Tasmania is the smallest employing state, there are employment opportunities available across all industries.

Health Care and Social Assistance is the largest employing industry (14%), closely followed by Retail Trade and Education and Training.

Tasmania has the oldest workforce of any state or territory, with 46% aged 45 years or older. Part-time work is also relatively common (39% of state employment, the largest share in Australia). Workers in this state are less likely to have a bachelor degree or higher than the national average, although they are more likely to have completed a certificate III or higher vocational qualification.

Tasmania has the most regionally diverse workforce in Australia, with just over half of all workers employed outside of Hobart.

Employment by region, Tasmania

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Hobart 40 47 15 21 36 28 29
Launceston and North East 36 48 15 26 25 35 36
South East 46 47 12 30 20 44 33
West and North West 35 48 14 27 19 38 36
Tasmania 39 48 15 24 28 33 32
Australia 31 47 15 19 33 30 32

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Northern Territory

Northern Territory Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 13:52

The Northern Territory graphic shows 35% of jobs are regional. 12% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 10% of workers are self-employed.

The Northern Territory graphic shows 34% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 30% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 4% of workers hold an other qualification. 32% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Occupation
Public Administration and Safety
Health Care and Social Assistance
Education and Training
Retail Trade
Construction
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Accommodation and Food Services
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Other Services
Administrative and Support Services
Manufacturing
Mining
Arts and Recreation Services
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Information Media and Telecommunications
Wholesale Trade
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
Financial and Insurance Services

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The Northern Territory is the smallest labour market in Australia, with almost two thirds of employment located in Darwin. Public Administration and Safety is the largest employing industry (20%), followed by Health Care and Social Assistance (18%).

Given the small size of the Territory’s workforce (compared with the rest of Australia), it is important to make the most of your relationships with friends, family and other local contacts as they may be aware of job opportunities.

Vacancies that might be formally advertised in other parts of Australia are often advertised through more informal ways (for example, word of mouth, sign in a shop window or on social media). Knowing that, people looking for work might find more opportunities by using every available method. For information on what employers are looking for, please see what employers are generally seeking.

Employment by region, Northern Territory

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
Darwin 22 47 13 18 36 28 33
NT - Outback 25 49 11 20 28 30 30
Northern Territory 23 48 12 19 34 30 32
Australia 31 47 15 19 33 30 32

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Australian Capital Territory

Australian Capital Territory Jon Wundersitz Tue, 11/03/2020 - 13:54

The Australian Capital Territory graphic shows 0% of jobs are regional. 16% of workers are aged 15 to 24 years. 11% of workers are self-employed.

The Australian Capital Territory graphic shows 45% of workers hold a bachelor degree or higher. 23% of workers hold a certificate 3 or higher qualification. 4% of workers hold an other qualification. 28% of workers do not hold a post-school qualification.

Occupation
Public Administration and Safety
Health Care and Social Assistance
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Education and Training
Construction
Accommodation and Food Services
Retail Trade
Other Services
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Administrative and Support Services
Arts and Recreation Services
Manufacturing
Financial and Insurance Services
Information Media and Telecommunications
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
Wholesale Trade
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Mining

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Unlike other states and territories, employment in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) is mainly in one industry - Public Administration and Safety. Around one in three Canberran workers are employed in this industry, and most work in public service roles for either the federal or territory government.

However, not all roles within Public Administration and Safety are desk jobs. This industry employs workers across a broad range of areas including graphic design, event management and communication (increasingly through social media).

With many workers returning to their offices following working from home arrangements, there may also be entry level job openings in cafés and restaurants as demand for these services increases. It is important to note, however, that these jobs are typically advertised by word of mouth. More information on how employers find workers.

Employment by region, Australian Capital Territory

  Employment Profile Workforce Educational Profile
  Part-time Female Aged 15 to 24 years Aged 55 years or older Bachelor degree or higher Cert III or higher VET qual No post-school qual
Region % % % % % % %
ACT 27 49 16 15 45 23 28
Australia 31 47 15 19 33 30 32

Sources: ABS, Labour Force (seasonally adjusted and annual averages of original data); ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Where do you look for a job?

Where do you look for a job? Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:50

The first step on the road to employment is finding a job. But where are jobs listed? Employers often use a number of methods to find candidates and below are some of the most common methods used.

Internet

Many employers use the internet to advertise jobs. This includes their own company website, or job search websites like Australian Job Search.

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Tailor your résumé and application for each different job you apply for. This helps you stand out from others who may use the same résumé and application every time. 

Social media

More and more employers are using social media to hire workers. Look out for ads posted on business pages, or in Facebook job groups. 

Newspapers

Don’t forget about the humble newspaper—many employers still advertise their job openings in in the classifieds section. 

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Word of Mouth

Employers often ask people they know to ‘spread the word’ about an available position, or even ask current staff if they know someone who would fit the role. 

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Approach employers

Many job seekers approach employers to ask if they have any jobs open or to drop off their résumé. Employers often consider these job seekers for current or future opportunities. 

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What employers are looking for

What employers are looking for Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 14:19

As the jobs market becomes more competitive as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is more important than ever to understand what employers are looking for. Even before the pandemic, employers received an average of 21 applicants per vacancy. With many more people now unemployed, the competition for the available jobs will be greater.

Generally, employers are looking for someone with the whole package: the right educational qualifications are essential and work experience is often a pre-requisite. Also, do not forget your employability skills! Employers may be willing to compromise on some aspects, depending on the type of job, but not on others. For example, an employer may hire someone as a Checkout Operator without any work experience, but will insist on good team work and customer service skills.

Education and training

Overall, work is becoming more skilled. The majority of jobs created in the future will require a Vocational Education and Training (VET) or university qualification. The workforce has also become more skilled, with nearly two-thirds of the working age population (aged 15 to 64 years) in 2019 holding a post-school qualification (up from 51% in 2014).

Completing Year 12 (or equivalent) is the minimum requirement for most employers, however, many are seeking people with post-school qualifications.

University is not the only pathway to a good job. Apprenticeships, traineeships, diplomas or certificate III or IV level qualifications will also set you up for a stable and rewarding career.

If you are considering a VET course or qualification, the best type of training is related to the job you want to do. But don’t do training for the sake of it! For example, Personal Carers often require certificates in food handling and first aid, but one certificate I (or several) may not help in the long-term. A certificate III or higher qualification will likely include the relevant training, along with a range of other units important for this occupation.

In response to COVID-19, new short courses, or ‘micro-credentials’, are also available to help you upskill (check out courseseeker.edu.au for available courses). These short courses can be a good way to gain new skills relevant to the jobs in demand.

Experience

Workplace experience is another important quality that employers look for. All jobs will give you valuable experience and help you develop vital employability skills. Regardless of the job, you will gain an understanding of what is expected in the workplace and be able to demonstrate to employers that you are committed to work, reliable and trustworthy. Most importantly, it gives you a foot in the door and provides you with an opportunity to build your network and gain referees.

Experience can be gained through part-time, casual, or temporary jobs, work experience placements, internships or even by volunteering.

What if you do not have any work experience?

If you don’t have any work experience, think about other ways to demonstrate your transferable skills. You could provide examples from your school activities or work on group projects, working with your local sports club, even participating in debating, theatre or dance performances or chess competitions. Employers are also very encouraged by young people who participate in community or volunteering activities.

There are also some jobs for which employers are more likely to consider someone without previous experience, such as Fast Food Cooks, Packers and Pharmacy Sales Assistants. Research conducted by the NSC indicates many of these jobs have been in demand during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as General Sales Assistants and Checkout Operators.

Sources: ABS, Education and Work, Australia, May 2019; National Skills Commission, Jobs in Demand Employer Survey; National Skills Commission, Survey of Employers’ Recruitment Experiences.

Finding a Job

Finding a Job Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 14:22

Employability skills

Employers often place a high value on employability skills as they want someone who will be a good fit for their business. While you can gain these skills through work experience, they are not job-specific, cover a range of personal qualities and skills, and transfer across different occupations and industries.

Core Skills

People skills

Communication skills

Work ethic

Initiative

Problem solving

Ability to work in a team

Personal presentation

21st Century Skills

Problem solving

Digital literacy

Creativity

Presenting skills

Critical thinking

Financial literacy

Recent research by the NSC highlights the importance of these skills, showing that three quarters of employers consider personal qualities at least as important as, if not more than, technical skills.

It is important to take the time to think about the employability skills you have. It will then be easier for you to tell employers what you can offer, but also help you think about what skills you can develop to improve your chances of getting a job.

While some employers will compromise on education or experience, most will not compromise on employability skills. Feedback from employers shows that they can teach someone to use a machine, but they cannot teach someone to be reliable or polite to their customers.

You need an excellent résumé and job application

Your résumé and application are often your first chance to market yourself to potential employers.

To improve your chances of reaching the next stage in the recruitment process, your application will need to stand out.

How do you do this?

  • Research the business and job. This will help you tailor your application and show your interest in the position.
  • Ring the employer and ask questions about the job and the business. Doing this demonstrates your enthusiasm and the employer will remember you and look for your application.
  • Be succinct. Your application and résumé should be around 1-2 pages each.
  • If possible, include examples from your current job, work history or extracurricular activities and explain how these directly relate to the position on offer.
  • Double and triple-check that there are no spelling or grammatical errors in your application. Also consider asking someone to review your application, to help pick up any mistakes you may have missed.

Tailor your application to each job

Every job and business is different, so write your application specifically for each job. Do not fall into the trap of using generic applications. Imagine what an employer would think if they receive an application better suited to a role as a sales representative when their position is for an apprentice refrigeration mechanic.

Employers want the right match for their business, and showing that you have read the job description carefully and researched their organisation will help set you apart from other candidates.

More advice on writing résumés and job applications can be found at jobsearch.gov.au.

Digital job applications 

Applying for a job has changed—many employers are using new technologies in their recruitment processes as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, some employers are using software to scan résumés to shortlist candidates who match their needs.

Here are some tips that may help you land a job online:

  • make sure you read all instructions carefully so you don’t miss any steps
  • check that all information and responses for online applications are well thought out and don’t have any spelling or grammar mistakes
  • make your résumé software friendly by using a simple format and clearly addressing any selection criteria and required skills
  • some employers will do an online search for your name or look at your social media profile, so consider reviewing your digital presence to ensure it is appropriate
  • be prepared for video interviews—know where to find a good internet connection and professional backdrop, and make the most of the time available for each question. Also dress professionally—a good rule is to dress as you would for an interview in-person.

Source: National Skills Commission, Survey of Employers’ Recruitment Experiences.

Winning a job

Winning a job Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 14:25

Get ready for the interview: Prepare, Plan, Practise and Presentation

The interview is usually the second stage of marketing yourself and landing a job. Interviews can be nerve wracking, but some preparation beforehand can really help you stand out.

  • Practise interview questions with a friend or family member.
  • Prepare some questions about the job and business to ask at the interview. This demonstrates your interest and shows that you are prepared.
  • Think about your presentation and what you will wear. Remember, first impressions count! Dress appropriately for the job. While formal business attire may be fitting for a job based in an office, it may not be as suitable for a job in a fashion retailer.
  • Don’t be late! Find out where you need to be, plan your trip and aim to arrive at least 10 minutes early.
  • Explain the skills that you would bring to the job, and talk about your employability skills. Employers want to know who they will be working with and the interview is your opportunity to demonstrate this.
  • Prepare examples to demonstrate your skills based on your real life experiences, such as at a previous job, while studying or volunteering.

Tell your friends and family you are looking for a job

More than a quarter (or 27%) of employers fill a job with someone they know, directly or indirectly. This rises to 39% of employers in regional areas. It is common for employers to hire someone who is:

  • personally known to them, such as a friend or family contact
  • a professional contact (for example, a previous co-worker)
  • recommended by someone they know.

“I’m more likely to employ someone who is not experienced if they come looking for a job… it shows initiative” Accommodation and Food Services employer

Depending on what job you are looking for and how affected it is by the COVID-19 pandemic, there may not be as many opportunities available at the moment. By telling friends, family contacts, school teachers or neighbours that you are currently looking for work can help improve your chances of hearing about a job opening, or even being recommended for one when an opening occurs.

Don’t forget that social media is a perfectly good way to contact people too! However, don’t ask for a job straight away—send a simple message with what you have been doing, that you are looking to start working or move on from your previous job, and ask for some advice or insight. This way, if whoever you tell does become aware of an opportunity, they are more likely to think of you.

Get out there and talk to employers

If you don’t have a wide network of people, or if you have already told people you’re looking for work and haven’t heard anything, don’t be discouraged! Remember that approaching employers directly to ask if they have any positions available can also lead to a job.

In fact, for 11% of vacancies, employers consider people who have approached them looking for work, with many employers actually hiring them. Approaching employers lets you show your communication skills, initiative and motivation—traits that many employers are looking for.

This can be a daunting prospect for many, however, make sure you use it as an opportunity to have a conversation and make a lasting impression—this will make you stand out amongst other job seekers who just drop off their résumé. If an employer doesn’t have a job available at the time, but suggests you get in contact again at a later date, make sure you follow up. It shows initiative, that you were listening and are keen. You could just be in the right place at the right time!

What if your approach is not working?

You may need to consider:

  • whether your expectations are realistic. It is unlikely that you will start at the top and you need to show you are willing to work your way up from the bottom
  • widening your search to different types of jobs and locations
  • applying for contract or casual work, part-time or shift work.

Don’t be afraid to ask for feedback if you are unsuccessful. Many employers will tell you why you didn’t get the job. With each application and interview you gain experience that you can use to improve your job search skills. It is all part of the job search experience.

Looking for a job is hard work. Depending on where you live, there can be a lot of competition for jobs. It can take a while to secure a position and you may receive knockbacks in the process, but if you keep trying, your efforts will pay off.

Remember, while some industries may take time to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic, there will be opportunities across many sectors, such as Construction and Health Care and Social Assistance. COVID-19 may also speed up other trends, such as the move to online shopping. To boost your chances, you need to be flexible and look widely for opportunities – your first job may take you to the warehouse floor, rather than the shop floor!

“[The job seeker]… asked if we had any jobs going. We didn’t actually need anyone at the time, but she had good qualifications and a good personality so we added her” Property and Real Estate Services employer

Remember that all jobs can open doors to something better and give you valuable experience and skills — don’t just wait to land the perfect job.

Source: National Skills Commission, Survey of Employers’ Recruitment Experiences.

Skills for the future

Skills for the future Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 14:26

Skills are key

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused large-scale disruption to Australian businesses, workplaces and jobs. Even as the Australian economy recovers, we are likely to see more workforce transitions due to increased digitisation, technological adoption and ongoing structural changes.

In these times of global uncertainty and change, skills are key. The Australian Government, through the NSC, is providing a range of job matching tools and resources to help young people and existing workers skill and reskill themselves for jobs and careers that are in demand. More information can be found at yourcareer.gov.au

What types of skills will be in demand?

When applying for jobs, remember to emphasise your employability skills, rather than just the technical skills you may have. Communication, reliability, team work, patience, resilience and initiative are required for all jobs, and this will continue to be the case in the future. These skills are also highly valued by employers. A 2019 survey conducted by the NSC asked employers about the importance of these sorts of skills. Some 75% of employers considered employability skills to be as important, if not more important, than technical skills.

We also know that it is important to have the skills that will help you work with technology. Almost all jobs will require the use of at least one technology tool. A technology tool is software that enables a person to perform tasks related to an occupation. We use technology tools to perform many tasks in our daily lives including using the internet, sending emails, texts or instant messages, and connecting remotely with video conferencing.

For example, the most used technology tools for a Truck Driver are shown in the illustration. Even though the primary task is driving a truck, technology tools support drivers to perform other tasks, such as managing inventory and route planning, more efficiently and effectively.

Technology tools used by Truck Drivers

  • Inventory management software
  • Data base user interface and query software
  • Industrial control software
  • Materials requirements planning logistics and supply chain software
  • Office suite software
  • Route navigation software
  • Spreadsheet software

Source: National Skills Commission analysis

Can skills gained in one job be transferable to another job?

Many jobs have similar skill sets. If you are looking for work or facing a change of job, the good news is that you’re likely to have many transferable skills. Identifying your transferable skills can open up a broader range of job opportunities—see diagram below.

For further information on the skills employers will need into the future, please visit the Your Career website. This website provides clear and simply career information and is designed to help people of all ages and circumstances better plan and manage their career. It has resources on training options, information and services to support career development.

Jobs with similar skills

Retail Assistants

  • Motor Vehicle and Caravan Salespersons,
  • Customer Service Managers,
  • Call Centre Operators

Café Workers

  • Baristas, Waiters,
  • Bar Attendants,
  • Kitchenhands,
  • Cashiers

General Clerks

  • Receptionists,
  • Admission Clerks,
  • Data Entry Operators,
  • Transport and Despatch Clerks

Builder's Labourers

  • Excavator Operators,
  • Wall and Floor Tilers,
  • Railway Track Workers,
  • Freight and Furniture Handlers

Machine Operators

  • Painting Trades Workers,
  • Furniture Finishers,
  • Panelbeaters

Source: National Skills Commission analysis

What new opportunities might be created by technological change?

The COVID-19 pandemic may speed up workforce transitions already underway due to technological change. Some businesses could move their business online and adopt new ways of working.

In order to provide up-to-date and accurate information about these new opportunities, the NSC has undertaken work to identify the occupations that have emerged from this period of transition. Examples include Social Media Specialists and Wind Turbine Technicians. See here for more information on these emerging occupations.

As the Australian economy recovers, the jobs created may not be the same as those that were lost. Technological change may also change some jobs and their skills requirements. For example, school teachers are engaging with online learning and using technology to apply multiple teaching methods in class.

While some workforce disruptions have been challenging, technology is creating new opportunities. For example, there may be more opportunities to enjoy a regional lifestyle while working remotely. In turn, regional population growth could create more local job opportunities, strengthening those communities and economies.

Will training and qualifications be necessary?

There are many pathways to work, and it is important to make decisions based on your own strengths. In a competitive labour market, training and qualifications matter. It also helps to understand the skills you acquire through your education, training and work experience.

You can use the Government’s resources like Jobs Hub and Skills Match to identify your transferable skills and address skills gaps. These resources also identify local labour market trends and opportunities—so you know your training and qualifications will lead to ongoing work.

Skills development and lifelong learning will expand your opportunities as some jobs change, new jobs emerge, and technological progress continues.

Jobs and Training

Jobs and Training Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:53

Education and Employment

Education and Employment Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:58

There are many options when you are leaving school, or are entering or re-entering the workforce at an older age. For some people, the thought of further study is exciting, but for others it isn’t a viable or favoured choice.

  • If you are considering gaining additional qualifications, there are two main training pathways for you to consider.
  • The Vocational Education and Training (VET) system develops workplace-specific skills and knowledge by delivering nationally recognised training. VET includes publicly owned TAFE institutes, private providers (including enterprise and industry providers), community organisations and schools. It provides training for a vast array of occupations, including highly skilled Technician and Trades Worker roles.
  • Australia’s higher education system is made up of universities and other institutions that offer undergraduate degrees and higher qualifications. Higher education is the pathway to a range of jobs, including the most highly skilled Professional occupations.

Employment and training decisions should be based on a variety of factors including aptitude, interests, expectations of pay and working conditions, training and goals.

Educational attainment is rising

The number of people undertaking tertiary training is increasing and more of the workforce now holds post-school qualifications. In 2019, 68% of Australians aged 20 to 64 years held post-school qualifications (up from 60% in 2009), with growth recorded in both VET and higher education qualifications.

Post-school qualifications are beneficial in today’s jobs market

People with higher level qualifications generally have better employment outcomes than those who have not completed further education after leaving school.

Higher qualifications also generally lead to increased real wages. Some lower skilled occupations, though, have relatively high pay, sometimes to compensate for unsociable working hours or difficult working conditions.

What if I don’t complete further education?

Although most new jobs created in recent years (and those expected in the future) are in skilled occupations, there will continue to be large numbers of jobs in lower skilled occupations (that is, jobs which do not usually require post-school qualifications). Lower skilled occupations generally have higher turnover rates than those which require post-school qualifications and many job openings are available each year across all industries.

Significant proportions of Labourers (58%), Sales Workers (56%) and Machinery Operators and Drivers (54%) do not hold post-school qualifications. This includes occupations like General Sales Assistants, Waiters, Checkout Operators and Office Cashiers, and Truck Drivers.

There are opportunities in all industries for people who do not have post-school qualifications. For example, more than half of the jobs in Accommodation and Food Services and Retail Trade are held by workers who do not have such qualifications.

What is needed to gain employment without post-school qualifications?

There is often strong competition for jobs which do not require post-school qualifications. Previous experience is commonly required by employers and this can be a key barrier for new job seekers. There are, though, a number of strategies which can enhance a job seeker’s prospects. These are outlined in the Winning a job section.

Sources: ABS, Characteristics of Employment; ABS, Education and Work.

Education Enrolments

Education Enrolments Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 14:06

Vocational Education and Training (VET)

The VET system provides a skilled workforce with nationally recognised qualifications and knowledge-based competencies. Students can enrol in qualifications (with around 2,000 on offer), accredited courses, industry recognised skill sets and units of competency, allowing them to gain the specific skills they need, when they need them. Training takes place in classrooms, workplaces and online, and can be full-time or part-time.

4.2 million vet program enrolments in 2019. Certificate I – 119,200. Certificate II – 394,900. Certificate III – 879,300. Certificate IV – 446,300. Diploma or higher – 379,000. Due to rounding, numbers may not sum to total.

 

The largest numbers of program enrolments are in the fields of education of Management and Commerce and Society and Culture.

As part of the 4.2 million VET program enrolments in 2019, there were 2.6 million enrolments in stand-alone VET subjects. This training (referred to as subject only training) includes courses that are critical both to employers and the Australian economy. Examples include “construction white cards” for building sites, responsible service of alcohol and first-aid certifications.

Higher Education

Universities offer courses at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including associate degrees, bachelor degrees, masters and PhD qualifications. The vast majority of students study at the bachelor degree level (71% in 2017). Higher education usually involves a commitment to at least three years of full-time equivalent study to attain a bachelor degree, but many courses involve longer periods of education.

There were 1.09 million domestic students enrolled in higher education in 2019 (up by 34% over the past decade).

What subject areas are available?

The higher education sector provides training in all fields of education, but the largest numbers of enrolments are in Society and Culture (289,100 enrolments in 2019), which is a diverse field of education including studies in law, psychology, human welfare and society, language and linguistics, economics and sport and recreation.

Further information on higher education enrolments can be found at education.gov.au/higher-education-statistics.

Higher education enrolments, by field of education

  2017 enrolments
 ('000)
10 year change
%
Society and Culture 289.1 32.2%
Health 223.3 72.7%
Management and Commerce 183.2 10.3%
Education 115.2 20.2%
Natural and Physical Sciences 104.8 54.3%
Creative Arts 77.3 18.9%
Engineering and Related Technologies 66.0 21.5%
Information Technology 41.5 75.0%
Architecture and Building 28.6 34.6%
Agriculture Environmental and Related Studies 14.5 -4.1%
All fields of education1 1086.1 33.5%

1. Total includes some mixed field and non-award courses

Apprenticeships and traineeships are a form of skills development that combine paid on-the-job work with training. They provide a nationally recognised VET qualification as well as relevant work experience.

Reflecting how highly workplace experience is valued by employers, apprentices and trainees generally have strong graduate employment outcomes.

There were 272,500 apprentices and trainees in-training in March 2020, working across more than 300 different occupations, including many non-trade occupations.

Occupations in which apprentices and trainees most commonly work

67% of apprentices and trainees are in Technicians and Trades Workers. Most common jobs are Electricians, Carpenters and Joiners, Motor Mechanics, Plumbers, and Sheetmetal Trades Workers.

11% of apprentices and trainees are Community and Personal Service Workers. Most common jobs are in Child Care, Hospitality Workers, Nursing Support and Personal Care Workers, Tourism and Travel Advisers, and Welfare Support Workers.

7% of apprentices and trainees are Machinery Operators and Drivers. Most common jobs are in Earthmoving Plant Operators, Storepersons, Truck Drivers, and Drillers, Miners and Shot Firers.

Sources: NCVER, Total VET Students and Courses; NCVER, Apprentices and Trainees; Department of Education, Skills and Employment, Higher Education Statistics

Education Employment Outcomes

Education Employment Outcomes Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 14:12

VET graduate employment outcomes

Graphic. 65.8% of VET graduates had an improved employment status after training. Trade apprenticeship or traineeship 86.5% improved employment status. Non-trade apprenticeship or traineeship 71.4% improved employment status. Other training 63.0% improved employment status.

What apprenticeships or traineeships are considered to be trades?

There is a wide range of occupations regarded as trades. Some examples are constructions trades workers, hairdressers, mechanics, metal trades workers, electricians, telecommunications workers, aircraft maintenance engineers, locksmiths, cabinetmakers and chefs.

Graduates in Architecture and building, Education and Engineering and related technology commonly reported employability benefits from their study, with more than 70% of these graduates stating they improved their employment status after training. Information technology and Creative arts graduates reported the least improvement in employment status after graduating (38% and 40% respectively).

Do VET graduates have high earnings?

Workers who hold a VET qualification at the certificate III or higher level generally earn more than those who have not studied after leaving school (see page Education and Employment). In 2019, the median annual income for VET graduates working full-time after completing their training was $59,100. The highest median salaries were for those who studied

  • Engineering and Related Technologies ($67,800)
  • Architecture and Building ($62,600)
  • Management and Commerce ($62,000).
  Improved employment status after training (%) Median annual income
Diploma or higher 67.8 $63,900
Certificate IV 69.8 $68,100
Certificate III 67.1 $52,200
Certificate II 53.7 $52,200
Certificate I 37.0 $53,600

*Income figures are for those employed full-time.

Higher education graduate employment outcomes

While higher level qualifications ultimately improve employment prospects, employment outcomes for students immediately after graduation have weakened over the past decade. Positively, though, outcomes have generally improved over the last five years. In 2019, 72.2% of bachelor degree graduates (available for full-time work) were in full-time employment four months after graduation.

*Full-time employment is a proportion of those available for full-time employment. Part-time employment is a proportion of those available for any employment

Higher education graduate salaries

In 2019, the median annual full-time starting salary for an undergraduate was $62,600.

Postgraduate coursework graduates had a median starting salary of $85,300 and for postgraduate research graduates it was $90,000.

The highest bachelor degree graduate salaries by area of study were

  • Dentistry (median of $88,200)
  • Medicine ($73,100)
  • Teacher education ($68,000).

Sources: NCVER, VET Student Outcomes; ABS, Characteristics of Employment; QILT, Graduate Outcomes Survey

Government Programs

Government Programs Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:54

Government assistance is available to help job seekers find the right job, and to help employers find the right workers. More information can be found on the Department of Education, Skills and Employment website dese.gov.au or you can call the National Customer Service Line on 1800 805 260.

Self-employment and entrepreneurship

Self-employment and entrepreneurship Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:55

For many people, starting and running a business is an alternative pathway to employment or an opportunity for a career change.

An entrepreneur is anyone who starts and builds a business. There are people who are able to turn their hobby into a business and make money as a sole trader, people who start a new business but remain small (with just a few employees) and there are high-growth start-ups which focus on scale and export from the outset.

All new businesses are unique in their approach, planning and trajectory.

Self-employment can benefit individuals and the economy

Self-employment has many potential benefits for business owners, including the flexibility to work when and how they choose, the opportunity to learn new skills, and the ability to generate income. More than half of Australians think that there are good opportunities to start a business and almost half believe they possess the skills to do so. Self-employment and entrepreneurship gives people the freedom to do things differently and to come up with new ideas. Small businesses are more likely to be innovative and bring new goods and services to a market than large businesses.

In addition to the potential benefits to individuals, small businesses are valuable to the Australian economy. In 2019, there were around 2.3 million small businesses (employing fewer than 20 workers) in Australia that employed around 4.9 million Australians (44% of the workforce) and accounted for 35% of Australia’s gross domestic profit. 

Self-employment considerations

Starting and running a business can be a rewarding but challenging experience, and not all small businesses survive. While there were just over 2 million small businesses operating in June 2014, only 1.3 million (or 65%) were still in business in June 2018. In addition, small business owners often have net income below the average Australian wage. Of those who think there are good opportunities to start a business, more than 40% state that fear of failure would prevent them from doing so.

Starting your own business may require start-up funding, an idea, long hours, resourcefulness, and hard work. Exploring your idea, thinking about the skills and funding you need, and undertaking business planning are good first steps if you are thinking about starting your own business. It is also important to have support and guidance throughout your journey to becoming a small business owner.

Where to go for support?

There are a number of government resources available to assist people who want to start their own business and show what self-employment may look like for them.

SelfStart Online Hub

The SelfStart Online Hub is a starting point for people who wish to explore and develop their ideas into a successful business. SelfStart aims to connect people to existing services and programs, as well as provide information that will assist them to start a business. For more information, go to jobsearch.gov.au/selfstart

New Business Assistance with NEIS

New Business Assistance with NEIS helps people start their own business. The program provides accredited business training, assistance to develop a business plan and mentoring and advice in the first year of a new business. Since the program was introduced in 1985, it has helped more than 180,000 people start their own business.

New Business Assistance with NEIS is delivered by a national network of NEIS providers. You can find your nearest NEIS provider and more information at dese.gov.au/neis

Entrepreneurship Facilitators

Entrepreneurship Facilitators are located in 23 locations across Australia to provide practical assistance to support and encourage people looking to start a business. Facilitators provide information and advice through workshops, networking events and one-on-one mentoring providing tailored advice. They also help people connect with other appropriate services that are available to help start and run a business, for example, New Business Assistance with NEIS or business support services.

Contact details for Entrepreneurship Facilitators are available from dese.gov.au/entrepreneurship-facilitators.

Business.gov.au

The Australian Government provides information to help people plan, start or run their own business. The ‘Starting a Business Guide’ provides step-by-step information to help new business owners understand what's ahead when starting a new business in Australia, and is available at business.gov.au/Guide/Starting.

Sources: Australian Small Business and Family Enterprise Ombudsman, Small Business Counts 2019; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: GEM Australia – 2017/18 National Report; ABS, Counts of Australian Businesses.

Employee and employer incentives

Employee and employer incentives Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:55

Government assistance is available to help job seekers find the right job, and to help employers find the right workers. The information below is summary in nature and cannot fully explain the large number of policies, programs and incentives available. More information can be found on the Department of Education, Skills and Employment website dese.gov.au or you can call the National Customer Service Line on 1800 805 260.

Some useful resources are provided below.

jobactive

jobactive.gov.au

jobactive is the Australian Government’s way to get more Australians into work. It connects job seekers with employers and is delivered by a network of jobactive providers in over 1700 locations across Australia. jobactive providers assist job seekers to get and keep a job, and offer employers an end-to-end tailored recruitment service to find and hire staff. The jobactive website can help job seekers to find and apply for jobs, keep track of job searches, create a personal profile and get job alerts. Employers who hire an eligible job seeker could be eligible to receive a wage subsidy.

A jobactive provider can help job seekers to

  • write a résumé
  • look for work
  • prepare for interviews
  • get the skills that local employers need
  • find and keep a job
  • connect job seekers to a range of government initiatives.

A jobactive provider can help employers to

  • screen and shortlist applicants
  • find candidates for their business
  • assist new employees after they start work
  • access wage subsidies if they hire an eligible employee.

The jobactive website can help job seekers and employers find out more about jobactive and to find local providers. Job seekers can also call the Job Seeker Hotline on 1800 805 260, and employers can call the Employer Hotline on 13 17 15.

Youth Jobs PaTH

jobactive.gov.au/path

An Australian Government program that supports young people to gain the work experience and skills they need to get a job. Through Youth Jobs PaTH, young job seekers can undertake practical face-to-face training, tailored to their needs, to improve their job preparation skills.

Job seekers can undertake an internship placement with a business looking for new staff. This allows employers to trial a young person in their business for 4-12 weeks, for 30 to 50 hours per fortnight, where there is a reasonable prospect of employment at the end of the trial. If the trial results in employment, the employer may be eligible to receive a wage subsidy. Youth Jobs PaTH has 3 steps: Prepare—Trial —Hire.

Transition to Work

employment.gov.au/transition-work

Supports young people (aged 15-24) on their journey to employment. Transition to Work helps workers get job-ready with intensive pre-employment support and help them set and achieve employment and education goals.

Transition to Work providers work with employers to find and hire a young person suited to their organisation. Support can include a trial placement before starting the job. If the placement is a good fit and the young person is hired, the employer may be eligible to receive a wage subsidy. See the website for more information.

National Work Experience Programme

employment.gov.au/national-work-experience-programme

The National Work Experience Programme places job seekers in real life unpaid work experience placements. It helps job seekers gain experience and confidence, while demonstrating skills to potential employers. Businesses may be eligible to receive an incentive payment for hosting a National Work Experience Programme candidate and, if participants are offered ongoing employment after the placement, businesses may also be eligible for a wage subsidy. 

Disability Employment Services

www.jobaccess.gov.au

For job seekers with a disability, injury or health condition who need help to find or keep a job, Disability Employment Services can help. The JobAccess website also has comprehensive information to help job seekers understand their rights and responsibilities, find financial support for workplace modifications and help to find and keep a job.

A Disability Employment Services provider can help an employer to hire someone with a disability. They will also provide support to:

  • Access financial assistance in the form of a wage subsidy to help with the costs of work-related modifications and services
  • Provide post-placement support while the new employee settles in.

Community Development Program

niaa.gov.au

The Community Development Program can help job seekers in remote areas of Australia improve their workplace skills and employability. The support is tailored to the workforce needs of the area and helps contribute to the local community.

For businesses based in remote areas, the Community Development Program can offer financial incentives to manage the costs of employing remote job seekers. The program is designed around the unique social and labour market conditions found in remote Australia.

Australian Apprenticeships

australianapprenticeships.gov.au

Provides information on apprenticeships and traineeships, including factsheets and links. An Australian Apprenticeship offers job seekers the opportunity to explore a new job, gain new skills, work flexible hours and receive a qualification. Eligible employers can receive financial incentives to help take on an apprentice, particularly if the apprenticeship is in a trade experiencing a skill shortage. Visit the website for more information.

Useful Websites and Links

Useful Websites and Links Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:56

Help finding a job or choosing a career

School Leavers Information Kit and School Leavers Information Service

yourcareer.gov.au

This kit has a range of resources and information to help school leavers understand their education, training and work options in 2021. For more tailored support or guidance, school leavers can call, text or email the School Leavers Information Service to talk to an information officer or careers practitioner.

Call 1800 CAREER (1800 227 337) or sms 'SLIS2020' to 0429 009 435 to chat to someone who can help you. This is a free service, however, minimal call/text costs may apply. If you are deaf or have a hearing impairment and/or have a speech impairment, call 1300 555 727 (speak and listen) and ask for 1800 CAREER (1800 227 337) or go to the National Relay Service website for other options.

Job Outlook

joboutlook.gov.au

Job Outlook can help you make decisions about study and training, getting your first job, or the next step in your career. It provides information about Australian careers, labour market trends and employment projections.  It also has a careers quiz to help you identify what type of work you most like doing, and the skills match tool which will show you jobs and careers that match your skill set.

Job Jumpstart

jobjumpstart.gov.au

The Job Jumpstart website is a one-stop-shop for practical, independent and free employment planning advice. The website offers information and resources for young people, to help them

  • learn about the different ways to contact employers about jobs
  • find out about the jobs and industries that might suit them
  • understand how to develop their skills and build their experience
  • learn how to make their job application stand out
  • adjust to the workforce and understand their workplace rights and responsibilities.

What’s Next?

whatsnext.dese.gov.au

The What’s Next? website provides a range of online resources to help workers facing retrenchment to manage the transition to their next job as quickly as possible.

Information about tertiary education and training

Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching

qilt.edu.au

Provides information about Australian universities, including study experiences and employment outcomes.

myskills

myskills.gov.au

An online database of Vocational Education and Training options, including information about providers, courses, outcomes and fees.

training.gov.au

training.gov.au

Information on training packages, qualifications, courses, units of competency and Registered Training Organisations.

National Centre for Vocational Education Research

ncver.edu.au

Provides research and statistics about Vocational Education and Training and the links between education and the labour market.

myfuture

myfuture.edu.au

An online career exploration service which includes information on a range of career-related topics.

Understanding the labour market

National Skills Commission

nationalskillscommission.gov.au

The National Skills Commission provides data and insights on Australia’s labour market, workforce changes and identifies current and emerging skills needs. It routinely publishes information on a range of labour market issues such as the impacts of COVID-19 on businesses and identifying emerging occupations within Australia.

Labour Market Information Portal

lmip.gov.au

The National Skills Commission’s Labour Market Information Portal (LMIP) brings together data from a range of official sources to help you understand your local labour market.

Data sources

Data sources Jon Wundersitz Mon, 11/23/2020 - 13:57

National Skills Commission

nationalskillscommission.gov.au

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

abs.gov.au

  • Labour Force, Australia, September 2020
  • Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, August 2019
  • Education and Work, May 2019
  • Characteristics of Employment, Australia, August 2019
  • Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations
  • Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification

Employment data at the national and state level are seasonally adjusted (where available). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the ABS has suspended the publication of trend estimates until the medium to long-term nature of the impact is understood. All other data are annual averages of original data.

Employment data at the regional level are 12 month averages of original data.

  • Because of the different bases for these data, state and regional employment and employment change figures are not comparable.

Employment data for Industry and Occupation groups are ABS data seasonally adjusted by the National Skills Commission (where available) but all other employment data (such as employment profile figures) are annual averages of original data.

For many small occupations and regions, the standard errors are relatively large. Accordingly, employment data may exhibit considerable variation and should be used with caution.

Regional areas are defined as those outside Greater Sydney, Greater Melbourne, Greater Brisbane, Greater Adelaide, Greater Perth, Greater Hobart, Darwin and the Australian Capital Territory.

The ‘no post-school qualification’ figures are for employed persons who have not completed education other than pre-primary, primary or secondary education. The ‘other qualification’ figures include - vocational education and training certificate I, II and not further defined; level of education inadequately described; and level of education not stated.

Department of Education, Skills and Employment

dese.gov.au

  • Higher Education Student Data Collections

Higher education data are for domestic student enrolments in universities.

Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching

qilt.edu.au

  • 2019 Graduate Outcomes Survey

Undergraduate and postgraduate full-time employment outcomes are a proportion of those who were available for full-time work four months after completing their degree. Overall employment outcomes are a proportion of those who were available for any work four months after completing their degree.

National Centre for Vocational Education Research

ncver.edu.au

  • Apprentice and Trainees, 2020 (March quarter)
  • Total VET Students and Courses, 2019
  • VET Student Outcomes, 2019

Vocational Education and Training graduate employment outcomes data are for all graduates who improved employment status after training. Vocational Education and Training student enrolment data are for individuals who were enrolled in a subject or program in 2019.

Some Vocational Education and Training student enrolment data relate to program enrolments (that is, study for a qualification course or skill set).